Saturday, March 14, 2020
Cmo queda ley Arizona SB1070 tras decisin de Corte En 2010, el estado de Arizona iniciÃ ³ con Ley SB1070 un empuje para tratar de restringir la inmigraciÃ ³n indocumentada dentro de su territorio, siendo su ejemplo seguido por otros estados como Alabama, Georgia y Utah. Esta ley fue objeto de gran debate polÃ tico y su suerte se decidiÃ ³ en las cortes federales. En este artÃ culo se informa sobre cules provisiones de la ley fueron impugnadas por la administraciÃ ³n del presidente Barack Obama, quÃ © decidiÃ ³ la Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos al respecto y quÃ © se puede aplicar de la Ley SB1071 en la actualidad y quÃ © no se puede, por considerarse inconstitucional. Partes de la ley SB1070 de Arizona que aplican Por decisiÃ ³n conocida como Arizona vs. United States y con cinco votos contra tres de la Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos en junio de 2012 se decidiÃ ³ que es constitucional la parte de la ley SB1070 que concede a los oficiales de policÃ a del estado de Arizona el poder para investigar el estatus migratorio de todas aquellas personas que detiene, arresta o para y de las que se sospeche razonablemente que pueden ser extranjeros indocumentados. Adems, siempre han aplicado porque nunca se les impugnÃ ³ las provisiones que establecen que el estado de Arizona, los condados y los municipios no pueden limitar la acciÃ ³n de la policÃ a a la hora de aplicar las leyes federales de inmigraciÃ ³n. Lo mismo aplica a la provisiÃ ³n que autoriza castigar a toda persona que es contratada o contrata desde un vehÃ culo. No importa, en este Ã ºltimo caso, que el que contrate sea un ciudadano estadounidense. La ley convierte a esta actividad en ilegal tambiÃ ©n para Ã ©l o ella, quien se arriesga a sufrir las consecuencias, incluida la posibilidad de perder el auto desde el que pretendÃ a contratar a una persona que se encontraba en la calle o en una esquina solicitando trabajo. Secciones de la ley SB1070 de Arizona que no aplican Las siguientes provisiones no aplican: En primer lugar, la obligaciÃ ³n para todos los extranjeros mayores de 14 aÃ ±os y que pasen ms de 30 dÃ as en EEUU de que se registren con las autoridades federales y que lleven consigo en todo momento la documentaciÃ ³n que pruebe que se han registrado. En segundo lugar, la disposiciÃ ³n que consideraba delito tener o buscar un trabajo en Arizona si no se tiene un permiso federal para trabajar. En tercer lugar, la disposiciÃ ³n que autorizaba a la policÃ a a detener a todos los inmigrantes de los que exista sospecha de que han cometido una ofensa que tiene como castigo la deportaciÃ ³n. La situaciÃ ³n migratoria actual en los Estados Unidos Con la llegada a la Casa Blanca del presidente Donald Trump se han producido importantes cambios en materia migratoria en relaciÃ ³n a refugiados, asilados y tambiÃ ©n a migrantes indocumentados. AsÃ , en la actualidad son prioridad para deportaciÃ ³n prcticamente todos los indocumentados. La Ã ºnica excepciÃ ³n a esa regla general por el momento son los 750 mil muchachos conocidos como Dreamers y que estn protegidos por el programa de la AcciÃ ³n Diferida, que se conoce por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s de DACA. Sin embargo, incluso para ellos la situaciÃ ³n es complicada porque el el propio presidente puso fin a ese programa. Los muchachos con DACA aprobado con anterioridad a la decisiÃ ³n del presidente Trump siguen amparados, al menos por el momento, por decisiones judiciales, pero no se admiten aplicaciones nuevas al programa. Por otro lado, los migrantes indocumentados tienen derechos que no pueden ser ignorados y es aconsejable que todos ellos conozcan quÃ © puede hacer y quÃ © deben callar en el caso de ser arrestados o detenidos. Sin embargo, mientras el gobierno federal y algunos estados endurecen las medidas para restringir la migraciÃ ³n indocumentada, otros estados mantienen o promueven su protecciÃ ³n dentro de los lÃ mites permitidos a las autoridades estatales o municipales, como por ejemplo, el caso de las ciudades santuario. Otro ejemplo es el de los estados que emiten licencias de manejar para los indocumentados, como es el caso de California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Maryland, Nevada, Nuevo MÃ ©xico, Utah, Vermont y Washington, asÃ como la ciudad de Washington D.C. la capital de Estados Unidos. Por Ã ºltimo, cabe destacar que dependiendo de las circunstancias de cada migrante, en ocasiones es posible encontrar un camino para regularizar la situaciÃ ³n y obtener una tarjeta de residente permanente, tambiÃ ©n conocida como green card. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal de ningÃ ºn tipo. Puntos Clave de la Ley SB1070 de Arizona restrictiva de la migraciÃ ³n indocumentada La Ley SB1070 de Arizona fue una de las primeras y duras con objeto de restringir la migraciÃ ³n indocumentada en su territorio. Fue objeto de gran debate y la Corte Suprema decidiÃ ³ que parte de la misma era inconstitucional.En la actualidad estn en vigor y pueden ser aplicadas las siguientes provisiones:La policÃ a puede informarse sobre el estatus migratorio de cualquier persona que para, arresta o detiene y de la que sospeche que puede estar en EE.UU. ilegalmente.La policÃ a de las ciudades y condados no puede impedir la aplicaciÃ ³n de ninguna ley migratoria federal.Es ilegal contratar o ser contratado desde un vehÃ culo.Los migrantes mayores de 18 aÃ ±os estn obligados a llevar un documento que pruebe que estn en el paÃ s legalmente. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The Welfare State in the United Kingdom - Essay Example The Labour government implemented a comprehensive welfare system in the United Kingdom. This effort was mainly concentrated in the period 1945 to 1951. In the year 1948, the National Health Service or the NHS Act 1946 was enacted. This act was instrumental in introducing a publicly administered health care system in the UK (Weisser & Kishlansky, 2007). Since 1979, the UK government was remarkably reluctant to allocate funds for welfare measures. This resulted in the poor performance of welfare programmes. However, the voluntary organizations came to the rescue and have enabled these programmes to run effectively. Nevertheless, the projected targets could not be reached, which resulted in the improper distribution of resources. As a result, the people belonging to the middle classes could not receive proper welfare and education (Welfare state , 2006). The New Labour government modified welfare to make it compatible with the market forces. This government has been very successful in m ustering the work force. It has increased the employment opportunities for women employees. At the same time it has managed to drastically bring down the poverty level. Nevertheless, it has faced major problems, with regard to the private welfare providers. The New Labour has found it quite difficult to either control or motivate these welfare providers. It has also met with mixed success in respect of achieving the market goals, ensuring sufficient income for everyone and providing adequate motivation.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Four Ways Creative Thinking Can Eliminate Debt - Essay Example This problem is further compounded with a high degree of consumerism which is prevalent in the U.S. A good percentage of Americans try to live above their means, be it the car they buy or even the house. This has lead to some very creative debt instruments which they can tap into. If just the minimum payment of a credit card it made every month, the card will not be paid for over thirty years. Then there are housing loans which have a Interest only payment option, which means the home owner has the option of paying only the Interest every month and the principle balance never gets reduced and since most use this option on a frequent basis, the balance on the debt remains at close to the initial level. And in the past few years, a new debt instrument has come up which actually allows debtors to pay less than the interest amount , which means that the principle balance can actually go up. How does this impact anybody wanting to take a loan to buy something Let us suppose a person can a fford a payment of $ 1000 a month towards his house. In a normal loan he possibly could afford a $100,000 house, If he chooses the Principal only option, he could possibly go as high as a $ 150,000 house , a negative amortized loan could get him as much as a $ 200,000 house. American consumers owed a grand total of $1.9773 trillion in October 2003, according to the latest statistics on consumer credit from the Federal Reserve. Thats about $18,654 per household, a figure that does not include mortgage debt. The number is up more than 41% from the $1.3999 trillion consumers owed in 1998.i The Mortgage Debt is about 25 trillion. The figures become even more staggering when you see that 43% of the Americans spend more than they earn each year. These Americans are like the bound prisoners in the Plato's Allegory of a caveii. They see only way to prosperity and that is through accumulation of debt. And that is because they see their neighbors in affluence, little knowing that it hides, most likely a horrendous amount of debt. But these people do not simply know any other way. And the current subprime crisis in the U.S. Mortgage market is because of just such people just wanting to live beyond their means and paying the penalty for that by losing their houses and the very affluence which they wanted. But as much as Plato's Allegory showed the dark side of Human conditioning, Jacob Bronowski's The Reach of Imagination showed us the amazing gift which we have which is the gift of imagination iii Almost everything that we do that is worth doing is done in the first place in the mind's eye. The richness of human lif e is that we have many lives: we live the events that do not happen (and some that cannot) as vividly as those that do. Which actually gives us a unique advantage, we do not have to stuck in any rut, we have myriads of possibilities available to us. And even in an apparently hopeless situation such as overwhelming debt we have many possibilities available to us. In Asimov's Eureka phenomenon there is a reference to intuition as a sense of something beyond that which is evidentiv. These papers and theory's were written well before anybody saw the current debt crisis which the Americans find themselves in. And the apparent hopelessness could never be visualized by anyone before this crisis. But this situation is not hopeless and that is because the creativity of the human mind is such that it can get solutions to a problem , however big it might be. Way 1 :
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Argumentative text about education at home Essay Education means school, classrooms and annoying teachers- for me. But it does not mean this any more. There is an increasing number of parents now who teaches their children at home. Education at home has advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is that children can study flexible. Their parents can give them a different timetable every day to make studying more interesting. Secondly the children wont be affected by criminal classmates and wouldnt learn bad things. But there are disadvantages too. First of all, children could finally feel lonely if they study at home every day. At school, they would study together and have fun in the break with other students. Thats an easy way for children to find friends. However, studying at home with their parents, children may hard find a friend. see more:paragraph writing on my school Secondly, children might find it difficult to work with others, because theyre used to study or work alone. But sometimes you have to work with colleagues as a group in your job. But if you have problems with team members, you could lose your job. Finally, children could be worse in their study, comparing with children who have classes at school. Their parents can not give a guarantee, the quality of education of their children. Sure, there are many people who graduated from university but that does not mean that they are good teachers. In addition, parents also have to focus on their work, which means they cant spend all day with the education of their children. In conclusion, children can learn more and have a lot of friends when they go to school. Furthermore, children can also easily deal with a team work. Therefor parents shouldnt assume a huge responsibility to teach their children at home.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Old Professor New Lessons Tuesdays with Morrie Thesis: In the novel Tuesdays with Morrie, Mitch Aldom gains a new understanding on life's lessons taught by his old professor Morrie. Old Professor-New Lessons Mitch Albom attended many classes taught by Morrie Schwartz during his years at Brandeis University, but he does not attempt to learn the meaning of life until he is in his forties. The knowledge of his favorite professors illness forces Mitch to rekindle an old friendship. In the process of finding an old friend, Mitch acquires many life lessons that give him a new meaning to his existence. Mitch and Morrie meet on Tuesdays. On the second Tuesday, the topic of discussion is feeling sorry for oneself. On this day Mitch asks Morrie, "Do you feel sorry for yourself." (Albom 56) Morrie responds: Sometimes in the mornings, that's when I mourn. I mourn what I have lost. I mourn the slow, insidious way in which I'm dying. But then I stop mourning. I give myself a good cry if I need it. But then I concentrate on all the good things in life. I don't allow myself any more self-pity than that. (Albom 57) Mitch is amazed how well Morrie takes his illness. People in Morrie's situation sit around and feel sorry for themselves. The idea of putting a daily limit on self-pity is a revolutionary idea for Mitch. This lesson shows Mitch that time on earth is precious and to find a ray of light in life's darkest days. On the forth Tuesday the l...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia, a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire known until recently as Czechoslovakia. His home was Vienna where he studied and practiced medicine until 1938 when Austria was annexed by the Nazis. With the Nazi annexation of Austria he went into exile in England and died in London in 1939. Freud made a great contribution to psychology and learning theory with his discovery of the emotional nature of unconscious motivations. His personality theory Ã¢â¬â though not entirely correct in all its aspects Ã¢â¬â brought to our awareness the unconscious level of the human Ã¢â¬ËmindÃ¢â¬â¢. As a result we are aware of some previously unknown aspects of human development. We now know that the mental conflicts of the neurotic are not fundamental conflicts of human nature. Instead they are based on the motivating forces and social conflicts of the social environment within which the individual personality develops and functions. The concept of Ã¢â¬ËnormalityÃ¢â¬â¢ makes sense only within the context of nature of the social environment in which the individual is functioning. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific discovery of the unconscious has contributed to the understanding of the role of the unconscious in the motivation aspect of learning Ã¢â¬ ¦the basis of the valuing process intrinsic to the human organismÃ¢â¬ ¦ (Ã¢â¬Ëintrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬â¢) and the importance of the emotional nature of motivation as a determinant for effective learning. This is of great significance to learning theory and consequently to educational theory. The emotional nature of motivation for learning is a key aspect of educational theory of the so-called paradigm of education for development of the person as a whole i.e. Ã¢â¬Ëholistic educationÃ¢â¬â¢. In 1923 Freud described his constructs of the id, ego and the superego. The id is the most primitive part of our personality. It operates according to the pleasure principle and it simply seeks immediate gratification. Freud believed that every human had a life and death instinct. The life instinct is called eros while the death instinct is called thanatos. Both are integral parts of the id. And the energy for this mechanism is libido, a flowing, dynamic force. The ego is different from the id as it is extremely objective. It operates according to the Ã¢â¬Å"reality principleÃ¢â¬ and deals with the demands of the environment. It regulates the flow of libido and keeps the id in check, thus acting as a Ã¢â¬Å"control centerÃ¢â¬ of the personality. It is the superego which represents the values and standards of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. It acts as an internal judge, it punishes the ego with feelings of guilt or it rewards, which lead to feelings of pride and heightened s elf-esteem. The superego is a characteristic of the personality which strives for perfection. According to Freud, the disparity and development of the id, ego and the superego, determines an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in a given situation, which in turn results in the development of the personality. Freud placed great importance on the early years of a child as he believed that what we are as adults is determined by childhood experiences. Freud called these early years of development the psychosexual years of development. These early years proceed through a number of stages. Each child undergoes the different stages. These stages are the oral stage (first year of life), the anal stage ( second year), phallic stage (third through fifth year), a period of latency (from 6 to 12), and the genital stage (after puberty). Freud believed that as every child passes through these stages there might be a likely possibility that a child may spend more time in a particular stage then they aught to. This co ndition can lead to a fixation or an incomplete development of the personality. A critical event during the first five years of life is the experience of Oedipus and Electra conflicts. Freud believed that both sexes encounter and must deal with these turmoils, which result from boys developing sexual attraction toward their mothers, and girls developing sexual attraction towards their fathers. A boy may have feelings of jealousy towards his father as he is an obstacle between him and his mother. And, they fear retaliation by their fathers if they are caught (fear of castration). Since the boy loves his father, these feelings are repressed and he begins to identify with the father, adopting his values. Similarly girls develop hostility towards their mothers, unconsciously blaming their mothers for not being equal with boys. They assume that something is missing and feels inadequate (penis envy). Another major aspect of psychoanalysis is the development of defense mechanisms. According to the theory defense mechanisms are used by the ego to protect the person from anxiety. Repression is when information is pushed down into the unconscious. This information is either unpleasant or undesirable and may cause anxiety. Very often this information is pushed so deep down into the unconscious that is hard to retrieve. Reaction formation is when due to anxiety feelings are replaced by the extreme opposite. For instance a person feeling hate will be replaced by love. Undoing is when the ego completely changes actions which lead to feelings of anxiety. In this mechanism the truth may be drastically distorted. Projection is when an individual tends to assign oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own shortcomings on to someone else. Rationalization is when an irrational act is made to appear rational. Denial occurs in cases where the ego is threatened and a person refuses to acknowledge the reality or seriousness of the situation. Identification involves empathizing with the qualities or characteristics of another favorable person. Fixation and Regression are related mechanisms which occur during psychosexual development. Psychoanalysis is also a therapy. It is based on the observation that individuals are often unaware of many of the factors that determine their emotions and behavior. Psychoanalytic treatment demonstrates how these unconscious factors affect current relationships and patterns of behavior, traces them back to their historical origins, shows how they have changed, and helps individuals to deal better with the realities of adult life. Though primarily of historical interest, an understanding of Freudian theory may give classroom teachers insight into the importance of unconscious feelings and drives that motivate some student behavior Implications for teaching When applying psychoanalysis to children or young students, a teacher must take a broad view by exploring the considerable range of psychoanalytic literature available.When applying psychoanalytic theories to children in the classroom, activities are typically categorized into either behaviorism or cognitivism. Behaviorism focuses on tangible behaviors, such as a child who will share her toys versus a child of the same age who refuses to share. Behaviorism also looks at conditioning and social learning to understand where a child picks up his personality traits and habits. Cognitivism looks at mental processes and events rather than tangible behaviors. Cognitive structure, or the structure and function of the brain, is of particular concern here. In cognitive science, psychologists are concerned with whether behaviors can be justified chemically or structurally in biological differences between people. When behaviorism and cognitivism are understood, teachers, parents and psychologists can attempt to answer behavioral disorders from a social conditioning and chemical perspective. A behavioral problem may be rooted in either or both areas of psychoanalysis. An example of a classic activity used for psychoanalysis in the classroom is role playing. During a role play, the teacher exercises control over the basic setup of the scenario. Students then act within those boundaries to produce original decisions and actions. In each scenario, a student knows there are things she should or should not do. For example, if the scenario involves seeing another child break a rule, the actor in the role play must decide what to do. Should he tell the teacher, attempt to punish or correct the child himself or let the child get away with it? Classroom activities around psychoanalytic theory can be public or anonymous. An example of an anonymous psychoanalytic activity is the question and answer game. Students write anonymous questions about social situations on a piece of paper and submit them to the teacher. The teacher will pass the questions back out to students, making sure each student gets a question he did not write. Students take the questions home and answer them overnight, and resubmit them anonymously. The teacher then reads them aloud for class discussion. 1. Learning is a process of active construction. Learning is the interaction between what students know, the new information they encounter, and the activities they engage in as they learn. Students construct their own understanding through experience, interactions with content and others, and reflection. Teaching Implication Provide opportunities for students to connect with your content in a variety of meaningful ways by using cooperative learning, interactive lectures, engaging assignments, hands-on lab/field experiences, and other active learning strategies. 2. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ prior knowledge is an important determinant of what they will learn. Students do not come to your class as a blank slate. They use what they already know about a topic to interpret new information. When students cannot relate new material to what they already know, they tend to memorizeÃ¢â¬âlearning for the testÃ¢â¬ârather than developing any real understanding of the content. Teaching Implication Learn about your studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences, preconceptions, or misconceptions by using pre-tests, background knowledge probes, and written or oral activities designed to reveal studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking about the topic. 3. Organizing information into a conceptual framework helps students remember and use knowledge. Students must learn factual information, understand these facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application in order to develop competence in a new topic. Teaching Implication Support students by using concept maps, flowcharts, outlines, comparison tables, etc., to make the structure of the knowledge clear. 4. Learning is a social phenomenon. Ã Students learn with greater understanding when they share ideas through conversation, debate, and negotiation. Explaining a concept to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s peers puts knowledge to a public test where it can be examined, reshaped, and clarified. Teaching Implication Use Cooperative learning strategies, long-term group projects, class discussions, and group activities to support the social side of learning. 5. Learning is context-specific. It is often difficult for students to use what they learn in class in new contexts (i.e., other classes, the workplace, or their personal lives). Teaching Implication Use problem-based learning, simulations or cases, and service learning to create learning environments similar to the real world. 6. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ metacognitive skills (thinking about thinking) are important to their learning. Many students utilize few learning strategies and have a limited awareness of their thinking processes. Teaching Implication Help students become more metacognitively aware by modeling your thinking as you solve a problem, develop an argument, or analyze written work in front of the class. Teach metacognitive strategies, such as setting goals, making predictions, and checking for consistency. Focus attention on metacognition by having students write in a learning journal or develop explanations of their problem-solving processes. Conclusion Psychoanalytic (or psychosexual) theory deals primarily with personality and postulates that human Ã¢â¬Å"behavior is motivated by inner, unconscious forces, memories, and conflictsÃ¢â¬ (Feldman, 1998, p. 26) that often stem from early life experiences. According to this theory, there are three basic structures of the personality: the id (which consists of the irrational libidinal drives that motivate the person to seek pleasure and sexual gratification), the ego (the rational part of the mind), and the superego (essentially the conscience which counterbalances the impulses of the id). Development occurs through a sequence of five psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) which focus on a body part (or erogenous zone) that becomes the center of pleasure or gratification (Rice, 1997). Defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, rationalization, and displacement, which serve the important purpose of temporarily distorting reality to relieve anxiety or reduce conflict, are also important components of Psychoanalytic theory. Though primarily of historical interest, an understanding of Freudian theory may give classroom teachers insight into the importance of unconscious feelings and drives that motivate some student behavior.